Abstract: The aim of the research was to examine the implementation of various differentiation practices seen from teachers’ and learners’ perspectives. The paper reviews recent research studies related to the adjustments teachers make to content, process and product, according to the patterns in student readiness, interest or learning profile and provides a descriptive analysis of the teacher and student responses to the effectiveness of differentiation techniques.
This paper draws on the analysis of teachers’ and students’ responses to the key interview questions about their experiences and views of mixed-ability and same-ability classes. The data were collected by means of two web-based surveys using Google Forms and involving 25 teachers of the Alibra School in Moscow and 100 undergraduate B.Ed. students of Moscow City University (MCU). The participants’ responses were visualized and published on the Internet with open access to the questionnaires’ data. Open-ended questions were organized and thematically coded in NVivo to facilitate analysis. The coding of several debatable cases was further manually checked and examined by the authors.
The results indicate that the majority of the teachers purposefully apply a variety of management tools in different parts of the lessons to achieve elaborate educational results and to infuse a growth-oriented mindset in the classroom. With regard to the students’ views on the notion in question, the research reveals broad patterns in learners’ attitudes characterized by certain correlations between students’ academic training and format preferences.
Abstract: The article reveals the theoretical and practical aspects of the interrelation of social creativity, the demonstration of leadership skills and personal agency of adolescents included in a socially enriched environment of additional education.
The methods of studying the development of adolescents’ personal agency are described, which make it possible to identify the level of social creativity of an individual and the aptitude of adolescents for leadership.
The article presents the results of an experimental study of the dynamics of adolescents’ personal agency in connection with the changes in the indicators of their social creativity and leadership potential after the implementation of a specially developed additional educational program "Social testing ground". The obtained results are compared to five stages of the development of personal agency such as "observer", "learner", "apprentice", "master", "creator".
A positive growth of the studied parameters among adolescents, the participants of the experiment, has been noted, which allows confirming the conclusion about the systemic nature of personal agency and its interrelation with the creative skills of an individual when interacting with the social environment.
Abstract: While aggression is considered as one of the most common behavior problems among adolescents, empathy can be a predictor of prosocial behaviors and underlines different implications for aggression in children. Empirical studies had proved that there was a negative correlation between empathy and aggression in children and adolescents. Nevertheless, the vast majority of studies on the relationship between aggression and empathy has been well documented in the literature with Western samples. The current study aims to examine the aggression-empathy association in Vietnamese adolescents and to explore whether or not aggression can be predicted by empathy and self-control. A total of 1,236 adolescents aged 12-13 years from 3 regions of Vietnam were asked to answer the survey package including the Reactive and Proactive Aggression Questionnaire, the Basic Empathy Scale and the Self-Control Questionnaire. Findings revealed that there was a statistically significant difference in aggression and empathy scores for gender, in which female adolescents showed a higher level of aggression and empathy than that of male ones. There was a strong negative relationship between aggression and empathy. Aggression can be predicted by empathy and self-control. Of the two variables, empathy was a better predictor of aggression (beta = -.42) than self-control (beta = -.37). The results add more valuable evidence to the existing literature on the relationship between aggression and empathy in a diverse population, and proved the role of education in enhancing empathy for adolescents in general and those with high levels of aggression in particular in school settings.
Abstract: As a core language skill, reading has always occupied a prominent role in the process of language acquisition, with a strategic approach to its development contributing to greater reading competences and better learning outcomes. The present paper, thus, aims to explore variation in strategy use by study field, year of study and university type among 228 university-level students in Bosnia and Herzegovina employing the Survey of Reading Strategies (SORS). A one-way MANCOVA revealed a significant effect of the study field on the overall use of reading strategies with the age factor being controlled and a univariate ANOVA indicated that the study field significantly affected all strategy subtypes. More specifically, students in the field of psychology seem to be the most frequent users of reading strategies and their two subtypes, namely global and support strategies, whereas the students in the field of English language and literature most frequently use problem-solving strategies. Moreover, a two-way MANOVA showed a significant interaction effect of the university status and the year of study on the metacognitive reading strategy use, even though their main effects were insignificant. The current study findings may contribute to broader understanding of the overall as well as type-specific use of reading strategies by EFL learners of different backgrounds, thus setting out guidelines for the development of corresponding curricula and instructional design.
Abstract: Illicit drugs and other substances are serious threats to global health and security. Thus, there have been several global efforts to enact and enforce strict humane drug laws and adequate interventions to curb the trade and use of drugs. Nevertheless, there is a dearth of research in the area of knowledge, perception, and attitude of high-risk populations, like West African university students, to guide interventions and the implementation of drug laws. In this study, we explored the knowledge, perception, and attitude of university students regarding available illicit drugs and drug users in Ghana. Adopting a cross-sectional correlational design, our results from 562 students showed that a large proportion of Ghanaian students were aware of the widely used drugs. The majority of our participants reported having heard of alcohol, cocaine, and heroin. However, fewer people reported knowing drugs such as lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD). We observed that university students in Ghana shared positive attitudes towards drug users. Participants in our study viewed drug users and problem drug users as victims who needed support rather than criminals needing punishment. Future research is required among mental health service providers and law enforcement agencies to explore their knowledge, attitude, and perception of drug users and other related issues.
Abstract: The authors analyze the assessments of Russian students in terms of digitalization of higher education, their attitude to the introduction of digital technologies in the educational process. The study was conducted in two stages. At the first stage (February-April 2020), a questionnaire survey of students of Russian universities was conducted (N = 1553). At the second stage (January-February 2021), two focus groups (N = 24) were conducted, which allowed us to refine the previously obtained data. The authors conclude that the attitude of students to the digitalization of education is determined by the experience of distance learning during the pandemic. According to the research, students’ expectations are related to the content aspect of using digital technologies in the educational process: developing practical skills and maintaining interest in learning. However, young people are not fully focused on the consumption of educational content for the development of their competencies in the chosen field of study. The availability of educational materials, video recordings of lectures in the virtual educational space does not serve as a compensator for key dysfunctions: a decrease in the share of live communication, narrowing of communication channels, lack of motivation to learn, etc. This educational requirement determined the prospects for the transformation of the professional role of the teacher: from the “translator of knowledge” to the “moderator of the creative space”.
Abstract: The purpose of the study focused on analyzing how high school students perceive the topics of money management, savings and investment. For this purpose, it was necessary to use the instrument designed by the National Commission of Retirement Savings Systems (2017) from which the items on money management, savings and investment were taken. The sample was non-probabilistic by self-determination, and the instrument was applied to a total of 207 young people born between 2000 and 2001 in the municipalities of Cosamaloapan and Carlos A. Carrillo belonging to the state of Veracruz. The data were captured in SPSS v23 software for descriptive analysis. The main findings suggest that there are diverse conceptions about the financial terms under study, such is the case of the effect of inflation, likewise the participants had difficulty in performing arithmetic operations that would lead them to answer correctly, they did not know what type of mathematical operation they should do and selected an answer option at random. In selecting the best option for saving money, most participants appropriately chose the financial tool. Regarding the protection of family savings in the face of inflation, four savings possibilities were presented. However, the decision for a specific instrument is not clear. This exposes the lack of knowledge of the operating mechanisms and purpose of each financial tool. The deficiencies identified in maki
Abstract: The problem that the research is aimed at is caused by the need to resolve the contradiction between the public demand for the quality of training the future digital school teacher regarding the formation of information culture, creativity, communication skills, the ability to work in a team, readiness for change, and the insufficiently developed methodological base for training graduates that meet these requirements. The purpose of the study is to theoretically substantiate and experimentally test the need to involve students of pedagogical specialties in practical activities to design a system of specially selected tasks as an important condition for training future digital school tutors. The methodology of the research is the analysis and generalization of scientific works on the organization of cognitive activity of students of pedagogical specialties. Learning.apps, interactive worksheets, cloud services, Learnis, etc. are used as software tools for the design of practice results. The results of the study. The types of tasks (situational and motivational; reference; borderline) are identified. The development in the direction of intensification and extension is proposed for the system of tasks. The features of organizing practice and the methodological component are described on the example of studying topics of the theory and methodology of teaching computer science. The conclusion gives findings confirming that involving students in practical activities to develop a system of their own tasks really contribute to the formation of professional competencies of future digital school tutors.
Abstract: Student learning outcomes are a critical indicator of the quality of instruction and the competence of faculty members and students in higher education settings. This research explored the students’ perceptions, the relationship of student individual characteristics and how educational environment at university influenced on the assessment of their learning outcomes in accordance with CDIO model. To acquire data, the research used questionnaire surveys and documentation. The data in this research was taken from a random sample of 1,107 students from the three member universities of the Vietnam National University Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. It was then analyzed by data processing, displaying to reach a conclusion. To obtain the results, methods such as descriptive analyses, independent t-test, the analysis of variance (ANOVA), and multiple regression analyses were used. Three things have come to light as a result of the study. First, the empirical results revealed that the majority of students have a favorable opinion of the assessment of their learning outcomes. In addition, there are variances in the assessment of students' learning results based on their individual characteristics. Finally, the factors associated with the educational environment at the university are significantly linked to the assessment of their learning outcomes under the CDIO model. The results of this study are the basis for stakeholders to develop scientific, accurate and logical sets of criteria for assessing student learning outcomes. The results from this research are to be discussed by managers.
Abstract: The aim of the current descriptive study was to examine perceived characteristics of aggressiveness of youth school’s students who received disciplinary punishment for violence and youth school’s students who not received disciplinary punishment for violence. Youth schools provide learning opportunities for students who fail in conventional schools because they required specialized attention not available in the conventional school. The analysis covered 178 youth school’s students, which were randomly selected from different youth schools in Kaunas region. The study used two surveys: Assinger’s questionnaire and Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire. The data in the Assinger questionnaire were found to be different from the normal distribution. Statistical analysis of these data was performed using the chi-square test. The data of the Buss and Perry’s Aggression Questionnaire were normally distributed, thus making it possible to use t-test for independent samples. Youth school’s students who received disciplinary punishment for violence had more positive attitudes toward aggression, i.e., they tend to justify the aggression partly or approve completely. Youth school’s students who received disciplinary punishment for violence were more verbally and physically aggressive than youth school’s students who not received disciplinary punishment for violence. The findings of the present study point out new trends to a deeper understanding of the peculiarities of aggressiveness among youth school’s students.
Abstract: The article examines the advantages and perspectives of distance education development in the Ukrainian higher education system. One of the innovations in the process of organizing education in Ukraine, as a country that actively implements the demands of time and the Bologna process, is the actualization of distance learning, that meets the needs of the modern society, the society that needs a mobile professional who can implement the skills and knowledge in the globalized society, not only limited to the norms and standards of their own country. Distance learning is one of the promising and effective forms of higher education, which ensures the expansion of professional contacts, as well as greater use of the scientific and methodological potential of higher education.
The authors consider the open educational resources to ensure the further effectiveness of the education system in Ukraine (in the context of society digitalization), to adapt it to the process of global integration. Open educational resources, both worldwide and Ukrainian, are the means for the development of skills and knowledge, due to which future professionals in a particular field have the opportunity to become more competitive at the labor market in the period of society globalization, achieving more significant goals.
Abstract: The relevance of foreign language proficiency of university graduates led to the design and pilot study of the of non-linguistic students’ language mediation development model. This model was implicated at the MGIMO of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Russia, the Odintsovo branch (Moscow Region) in the I-IV courses, Plekhanov University of Economics and the Kuzbass Institute of the Federal Penal Service of Russia (Novokuznetsk, Kemerovo region, in the I-II courses) in 2019-2021. The authors have disclosed the components of the model based on a set of cultural, competence and communicative approaches. Besides, mediation training methods and amendments to the content of language education were presented here.
The working concepts of the study are specified: types of mediation (interactive, non-interactive and hybrid), approaches and methods of developing mediation skills. The principles of selecting the content of language education (development and development of practice-, cultural- and professionally-oriented variable topics; priority of dialogical forms of communication in the language in the field of the studied concept with an emphasis on mediation; conducting negotiations in the language, etc.) based on the results of mediation are substantiated.
The pilot study highlighted that the content of education and teaching methods were the most flexible components of the designed model, that were quite easily transformed into any type of training (standard, mixed, hybrid and/or distance). The analysis of the language teaching methods used (debates, case studies, etc.) proved their compliance with the requirements of the current standard. The presented results of the pilot study, under the implementation of the developed model, including the period during the COVID-19 pandemic, verified by the data of control and pilot groups and measurement procedures, proved the effectiveness of the non-linguistic students’ language mediation development model.
Abstract: The ICT integration has a far-reaching consequence to the socio-economic development worldwide. This study contributes to the scientific researches on the teachers’ perceptions towards the impact of ICT use on English language teaching. The study used a mixed method approach with primary sources – a researcher-made questionnaire and semi-structured interviews. The sample population consisted of 357 selective teachers using Slovin formula with the judgemental sample technique (p = 95 %; r = ±5 %) out of 5.000 teachers of English from 3 national and regional universities in Vietnam, namely the north – Vietnam National University, Hanoi; the centre – Hue university; the south – Vietnam National University, Ho Chi Minh city in different parts in Vietnam during the school year of 2020−2021. The results reveal that teachers were fully aware of the importance of ICT implementation and showed their positive perceptions when using ICT for teaching English. They were dissatisfied with the ICT facilities and training instruction on ICT use. Dedicated ICT network and exclusive educational software for English language teaching should be specifically invested. Teachers’ training program on ICT use is necessary to be updated periodically. The study results would be served as a useful resource for educational administrators and stakeholders in reforming educational policies on teaching English with ICT integration.
Abstract: The present article aims to identify the major problems English teachers face in the process of working with special educational needs learners in the context of inclusive education in general education schools of the Republic of Kazakhstan. Despite the studies on special methods and pedagogy of inclusive education carried out by the educators, there are still no inclusive education achievement indicators enshrined in law.
The study uses the following general scientific methods: analysis of the current and prior normative legal acts regulating teachers’ activities in the field of inclusive education, analysis of scientific and methodological literature on special, general, and inclusive education, synthesis of definitions of inclusive education concepts as well as a survey of English teachers.
The conducted survey demonstrates a range of material, technical, pedagogical, and specific subject-related problems the teachers face in the context of inclusive education. Such problems are determined by the specifics and distinctive characteristics of teaching the English language in inclusive education conditions, as well as the preceding absence of courses on the methods of teaching the English language in inclusive education in the programs of higher educational establishments.
One of the main problems identified by the study was insufficient level of teacher training courses to prepare for teaching within the inclusive education, as well as the lack of appropriate methods on teaching English in an inclusive classroom. Thereunder, current article describes some practical ways of addressing problems defined.
Abstract: The problem to be solved by the research is due to the need to prepare a graduate capable of creative thinking, working in a team, managing changes, projects, teams of people within the modern educational environment, and insufficient degree of development of the methodological base for training specialists of the future that meets these requirements. The aim of the study is to theoretically substantiate and experimentally test effectiveness of using virtual walls for formation of group creative thinking, as an important skill that corresponds to conditions of uncertainty of the future. The research methodology is the analysis and generalization of scientific works on the problem of determining the essence of group creative thinking, the virtual wall, clarifying requirements for training of highly qualified specialists of the future. Methods of group interactive learning (demonstration in the distant form of interaction, online discussion, defense of projects, and work on a virtual team wall) are used to enhance cognition, create favorable conditions for creativity when working in a team. The Trello service is a software tool for supporting online collaboration and group creative discovery. The pedagogical experiment is presented on the example of assessing changes in the levels of skills that constitute the essence of group creative thinking.
Research results. The work clarifies the essence of the concept “group creative thinking” and describes the directions of group work on a virtual wall, which is most effective when forming it. The authors formulated the conditions under which the group activity on a virtual wall contributes to formation of group creative thinking: awareness of the meaning and motives of activity; the need for self-expression, active participation in the discussion, etc. Specific materials are proposed to improve the quality of education by means of supporting students’ group activities, focused on their creative development and preparation for future professional activities. In the conclusion findings that confirm the inclusion of group activities on a virtual team wall in the training of specialists of the future contributes to formation of skills and abilities that make up the essence of group creative thinking are given.
Abstract: Emotional intelligence (EI) and empathy are important for doctor’s work. But is there a place for a gender approach to develop the qualities? The aim of the research was to evaluate EI and empathic abilities (EA) in medical students through their gender to streamline the learning process and to develop professional competencies more effectively. The research included 104 medical students, 34 men and 70 women. Analysis of gender, cumulative and partial EI and EA was done by Bem, Hall and Boiko self-questionnaires respectively. IBM STATISTICA 8.0 was used for statistical analysis. Regardless of gender, most of the students had an average and a low level of EI with “managing your emotions” found to be the weakest. Males had higher cumulative EI and significantly better developed “managing your emotions” and “self-motivation”. Females had higher empathy level. All students had understated cumulative EA level. Rational channel, emotional сhannel, intuitive channel were the weakest. Cumulative EA level was significantly higher in females as well as levels of rational channel, emotional drip, intuitive channel, attitudes that promote empathy. All respondents have a potential to develop EI and EA by the weakest components improvement such as “managing your emotions”, rational, emotional and intuitive channels. Gender differences determine the need to develop self-motivation in females and empathy in males at high medical school. Gender approach may promote universal and professional competencies of aspiring physician.
Abstract: The authority given to teachers within the school setting is vital to any educational work. According to its most widely accepted meaning, this concept signifies teachers’ legal and social right to teach, counsel or guide that derives from a formal recognition of their ability to do so. As a concept, authority in the education system has undergone changes throughout history and is seen as a meaningful part of the educational process. The postmodern era presents us with an erosion of authority within the school system in general and teacher authority in particular. The goal of this study was to evaluate teachers' authority among teachers in Israel and to find out whether there are differences in this authority between distinct groups of teachers. Research was conducted using the quantitative approach. One hundred and eight male and female teachers participated by completing a questionnaire. The data were analyzed statistically, as is customary in quantitative research. The findings show that within the education system teachers display an average amount of authority. A significant difference was found between male and female teachers’ ability to wield authority, whereby male teachers displayed greater self-confidence than female teachers in their ability to do so. This finding might be explained by gender viewpoints; namely that female teachers in the classroom use qualities such as caring, concern and sensitivity. In contrast, male teachers use male characteristics such as dominance, assertiveness, ambition, aggressiveness and competitiveness.
Abstract: This paper explores the potential for using practice-based assessments in higher education in preparing humanities and social sciences specialists. The authors tested a set of innovative methodologies for practice-based summative assessment of the progress made in learning certain disciplines by students majoring in Law, International Law, and History and Archaeology at Sumy State University (Ukraine). To assess the effectiveness of practice-based assessments, the authors employed anonymous surveying, tested students’ level of mastery of key theoretical concepts, and carried out a comparative analysis of the performance of students who took part in practice-based assessments and those who took exams in a traditional way. The conducted pedagogical experiment indicates the advisability of employing practice-based assessments as part of teaching humanities and social sciences disciplines. It revealed a significant increase in the level of preparation of students on subjects summative assessment around which was based on practical assignments. Having students train their practical skills can help them assimilate theoretical knowledge better and for a longer time and become more confident in their preparedness for their future profession. Practice-based assessments can also serve as a yardstick for gauging the effectiveness of instructors’ teaching methods and stimulate the quest for new ways of teaching and learning that can help meet the needs of the labor market and the interests of students pursuing a higher education as much as possible.
Abstract: Technology is changing at a blistering pace and is impacting on the way we consider knowledge as a free commodity, along with the ability to apply skills, concepts and understandings. Technology is aiding the way the world is evolving, and its contributions to education are not an exemption. While technology advances will play a crucial part in future teaching-learning approaches, educators will also be challenged by the next higher-education generation, the Alpha Generation. This entrepreneurial generation will embrace the innovation, progressiveness, and advancement with the expectation that one in two Generation Alphas will obtain a university degree. In anticipating the educational challenges and opportunities of the future higher education environment, this research reflected on Generation Alpha as the next cohort of university students, considering their preferred learning styles, perceptions and expectations relating to education. The research employed a theoretical analysis based on the characteristics and traits that distinguishes Generation Alpha, spearheaded by technology advances. The empirical investigation considered three independent studies that were previous conducted by authors from Slovakia, Hungary, Australia, and Turkey to understand the challenges and opportunities pertaining to Generation Alpha. The research identified the influence of social media, social connections, high levels of perceptions and the Generation Alpha’s ability to interpret information as strengths to consider in future teaching-learning approaches in the higher education environment. This research concluded with recommendations on how universities could be transformed to ensure a better learning experience for Generation Alpha students, aligned with their characteristics, perceptions and expectations.
Abstract: This work explores the system of public education in Volyn Governorate in the period 1796–1917. This part of the work examines the timeframe 1796–1885.
The key sources used in putting this work together are the Extracts from the Report of the Chief Procurator of the Holy Synod for the Department of the Orthodox Faith (1836−1885), the Military-Statistical Survey of the Russian Empire, and the 1887 Memorandum Book for Volyn Governorate.
The authors’ conclusion is that in the period 1796–1885 the system of public education in Volyn Governorate had been developing in the light of the incorporation of this region into the Russian Empire. Attempts to keep in place the Polish education system led to a polarization of the local population and to student involvement in nationalist riots between 1830 and 1831. Only subsequent to this did the Russian government begin to take measures to unify the public education system based on the Russian Empire’s standards.
By 1885, the network of the region’s educational institutions numbered eight secondary schools, 28 lower schools, and 1,515 primary schools. Overall, Volyn Governorate had in operation 1,551 educational institutions, with a combined enrollment of 47,253 students. The region’s education sector included secular, ecclesiastical, private, and national educational institutions. The process of the making of the region’s public education system was pretty much over by 1885.
Abstract: The 1860s was a time of intense development of the system of education in the Kharkov
Educational District. The achievements were given a high assessment by the Administration, with
the District’s Trustee, Lieutenant General D.S. Levshin, going on to be later appointed in charge of
the Moscow Educational District. However, to date there has been no dedicated research on
D.S. Levshin’s role in the management of education at the time. This paper seeks to fill this gap by
exploring the activity of the District Administration in the area of curriculum development by way
of circulars issued in the Kharkov Educational District in 1861.
It was established that D.S. Levshin, working in association with well-known pedagogue
N.A. Lavrovsky, advocated a shift from direct regulation and introduction of curricula from above
to creation of an environment in which teachers are not afraid to display initiative and curricula are
designed at the grassroots level. The major undertakings in the area at the time included the
following: 1) overhaul of the school control system (with school inspectors encouraged to focus on a
direct link between the curriculum and the student’s academic progress, acting more as advisers
rather than controllers); 2) introduction of teacher's congresses at which to consider issues
associated with course content and delivery; 3) modification of the format of teachers’ meetings
(with such meetings turning into “teachers’ colloquies” intended to inspire discussion about
relevant issues concerning teaching and learning). These best practices aimed at building a
democratic pedagogical environment remain perfectly relevant today.
Abstract: This work examines the private education sector in the Caucasus in the prerevolutionary period. Consideration is given to the distinctive characteristics of the development of secondary, lower, and primary private education in the region.
The key sources used in putting this work together are the annual Reports on Educational Institutions in the Caucasus Educational District, which provide data on the region’s schools run by the Ministry of Public Education in the period 1884–1914, and the 1879 Memorandum Book for the Caucasus Educational District.
Given the study’s nature, special use was made of the statistical method, with the diverse statistical material classified by level of private educational institutions and the raw data on both the number of educational institutions and the gender and religious composition of the student body summarized. This helped identify some of the key distinctive characteristics of the development of the private education system in the Caucasus in the period 1849–1914.
The authors’ conclusions are as follows:
1. Private educational institutions in the Caucasus were divided into the following three categories: Category 1 – educational institutions with five grades and up (gymnasia and higher primary educational institutions); Category 2 – educational institutions with three-to-four grades (urban schools and four-grade progymnasia); Category 3 – educational institutions with one-to-two grades (primary schools).
2. To be able to compete with ministerial (public) educational institutions, private educational institutions had to continuously keep track of the demand for education in society, take account of new trends, and vouch for the quality of the educational process. Consequently, the region’s private education sector was characterized by impermanence. Essentially, it acted as a litmus paper for a reading on what was desired by society in the Caucasus. The sector was undergoing continuous change, with the number of school grades increasing. The number of primary private educational institutions continuously declined in the region over the prerevolutionary period. In 1879, primary schools accounted for 93 % of all private educational institutions in the region, in 1907 – for 78 %, and in 1914 – for just 61 %.
3. In religious composition, the student body across the region’s private educational institutions was dominated throughout the period under review by Orthodox Christians (the figure ranging from 57 to 74 %), followed by Armenian Gregorian Christians (18 to 35 %), with members of other faiths accounting for an insignificant portion of the region’s student body.
Abstract: This work analyzes the system of public education in Baku Governorate in the period between the second half of the 19th century and the early 20th century. This part of the work examines the timeframe 1900–1917.
The key sources used in putting this work together are the annual Reports on Educational Institutions in the Caucasus Educational District, which provide data on the region’s schools under the purview of the Ministry of Public Education, and a set of related documents from the Russian State Historical Archive (Saint Petersburg, Russian Federation).
Wide use was made of the statistical method. The authors researched the reports for statistical data on the following: the types of the region’s educational institutions, the number of schools in the region, the region’s library holdings, and the region’s student body (information related to student demographics, including ethnicity, religion, social estate, and gender). The use of the statistical method helped identify some of the key distinctive characteristics of the development of the system of public education in Baku Governorate in the period 1900–1917.
The authors’ conclusion is that the system of public education in Baku Governorate had markedly distinct characteristics. A large segment of the region's population was Muslims. Most members of this community preferred their children only to receive an ecclesiastical education, with it being discouraged that school be attended by girls. With the Baku Directorate for Public Schools tasked with the job of altering the community’s attitude toward secular education, the efforts did overall bring some fruition by 1914. More specifically, starting in 1900, the total number of educational institutions in the region rose 3.2 times, and its student body increased 3 times. The numbers of Orthodox Christian students and Muslim students in its primary schools virtually evened up – a testimony to most Muslim parents in the area coming to realize the importance of mainstream education for their children. However, there was a holdover that strongly persisted – it being discouraged that girls attend school.