Abstract: The subject of this research is the normative legal acts of the Russian Federation that regulate the procedure for public procurement in education. The objectives of the article are to identify problematic issues and features of public procurement of educational services, as well as to formulate directions for the development of legal regulation of high-quality and the conclusion of government contracts in the field of educational activities in Russia. The study revealed the need to optimize the legal support of public procurement in the educational sphere. The study used the chi-square test to test statistical hypotheses. The study found that the current procurement system does not fully contribute to the economic growth of the state. Improving the efficiency of the procurement system is hindered by the following factors: 1) the complexity and instability of procurement legislation. In total, during the entire period of the Law No. 44-FZ in force, 80 federal laws were adopted, amending it; 2) efforts are aimed at improving the procurement procedure, and not at achieving procurement efficiency and ensuring the proper quality of goods, works, services. Despite the upward trend in the volume of public procurement and the orientation of the procurement system towards increasing the efficiency of procurement through increased competition, during the entire period of operation of the contract system, there have been no significant changes in the indicators of competition and savings. A significant share of purchases from a single supplier remains, there is practically no competition. In this regard, it is advisable to optimize the procedure for holding tenders and auctions, clarifying cases of purchases from a single supplier in the field of education. Conclusions are formulated that the practical recommendations obtained as a result of the research can be applied when developing a strategy for the development of the public procurement system in the field of education.
Abstract: The article focused on the evaluation of Lithuanian adolescents' (dis)satisfaction with their body image by performing self-evaluation of their body image components through their body parts. Due to major physical, social, emotional, and moral ongoing changes, adolescents’ physical appearance becomes one of the top concerns. Dissatisfaction with physical appearance among girls is often reflected in a desire to be thinner, while among boys – a desire to be taller, become more muscular and have a nice body shape. However, there is a gap in research analyzing dissatisfaction with the body parts among adolescents. The aim of this research was to evaluate 13-14-year-old Students of Lithuanian Schools (dis)satisfaction with their body image by performing a self-evaluation of their body image components through their body parts. A 40-question authorial questionnaire was developed to measure (dis)satisfaction with one's body parts and validated in a representative sample. The sample consisted of 1,347 13-14-year-old students. As established, (dis)satisfaction with one's body parts was related to gender: the satisfaction of boys and girls with the image of their bodies differed (p = 0,000). Adolescents were more unsatisfied with the body parts that depended on an individual's phenotype (in the lower area – with buttocks, hips, legs, thighs, and calves; in the middle area – with abdomen and waist; in the upper area – with shoulders, arms and chest), and they were more satisfied with individual morphological characteristics of the body (facial skin, feet, cheeks, ears, hair, chin, lips, eyes, neck), depending on an individual's genotype. The boys' satisfaction with their body parts among 13-14-year-old students was higher than that of the girls.
Abstract: Educational institutions focus is mainly on the demands of the labor market, where the planning of various strategies from further studies can be implemented in their field. There is a big challenge to prepare new generation to competitive labor market. As we see also in all over the world, it is very important to have qualified workers who are able to adapt to the needs of companies. In Kosovo is very challenging to find qualified workers, this is a fact well known by companies. Companies in Kosovo are not satisfied with qualification of potential employees. Companies are constaintly complaining about problems they face to find or to hire qualified workers. The main purpose of this paper is to strengthen the cooperation of educational institutions with companies. This can be achieved by studying such collaborations across different countries, which can be a guide for adaptation in our country.
A structured questionnaire was used to collect primary data, which was then distributed to large corporations with the greatest number of employees. Secondary data is used for reviewing scientific literature and specific studies which are state of the art in this field.
The results of this research do not show a satisfactory level in terms of cooperation of companies with educational institutions, as most do not practice this form of cooperation, even if it is for mutual benefit.
Abstract: False beliefs and negative myths about sexuality in old age lead to stereotypes and prejudices towards this group. These negative opinions germinate from a lack of knowledge about a subject. In an ageing society, education plays an important role, attending to the needs of these people throughout their lives and offering information that encourages optimistic attitudes towards this group and about a subject that seems to be frowned upon or forbidden in old age.
To this end, this research aims to analyse the knowledge and attitudes that young people studying for the degree in Social Education and older people attending the training course of the experience classroom at the University of Huelva have towards sexuality in old age. The method used is descriptive-correlational and comparative-causal. A questionnaire was administered to a sample of 304 subjects between 18 and 78 years of age. For data analysis, descriptive statistics, group comparisons and multiple linear regression model were used to identify factors that condition sexuality in old age. The results showed that the older population has more knowledge and a more conservative attitude towards sexuality in old age than the younger participants. Age, knowledge and educational qualifications are noted as conditioning factors of sexuality in old age. The research provides elements to be considered when drawing up educational-sexual initiatives to help improve certain attitudes and contribute to a more positive conception regarding the elderly.
Abstract: The aim of this paper is to explore the experience of young people cross-border mobility development and support programs. Cross-border interaction is one of the most important factors that develops and strengthens the commitment of young people – both as employees of an organization and as citizens of a state – to participate in public life and share cultural experiences. The mobility of young people can have a variety of motivations, but mobility for educational purposes is the most researched because of its potential transformative impact. At the same time, researchers and enthusiasts have not sufficiently reflected on how these processes help the young generation to associate their decisions and demands from the standpoint of a stronger national identity and a positive attitude towards their country, as well as a vision of organizational and public policy. By applying elements of hindsight, induction and deduction methods, the authors update the significance of the cross-border youth interaction phenomenon and highlight the particularities of its development programs implementation. Moreover, of particular relevance to the present research is global experience, which includes practices and programs aimed at fostering cross-border youth interaction. In this regard, the authors consider the key attributes of the methodologies of educational and socio-cultural institutions and organizations to provide young people with opportunities for multinational communication and assimilation.
Abstract: Digitalization has affected all spheres of life, including education. Modern didactics and methods of digital education are designed to solve problems rеlаtеd tо the use of dіgіtаl tесhnоlоgіеs, tооls and resources іn the education, uрbrіngіng and dеvеlорmеnt of children with dіsаbіlіtіеs. Тhе аіm of the study wаs tо dеvеlор a model of the components of dіgіtаl lіtеrасу and in practice to assess the level of development of digital literacy of studеnts with hеаrіng іmраіrmеnt. The process of forming and improving the components of digital literacy of hearing impaired students was carried out on the basis of the scientific substantiation of the content of the special course in addition to computer science. The study was conducted in Kazakhstan between the years 2019 and 2021 among 127 students of special (correctional) schools. We have proposed the author's two-component model of digital literacy of hearing impaired students: (1) digital user component and (2) digital correction-intellectual component. In the first component students with hearing impairments will able to know the basic Engineering training. For example, installing, starting, removing and updating software; installing the operating system; increasing the speed of a computer; working with drivers, peripheral devices and etc. On the basis of the collected data, we have noticed the following: digital user component of digital literacy is an important for hearing impaired students because the respondеnts possess the lowest lеvеl of knowledge in the аrеа of engineering training and have the ability to create digital content. This led to create the second component as Digital correction-intellectual component. According to this component, students will be able to improve their cognitive, logical, critical, creative, systems thinking, memory, attention, speech, communication skills through learning adopted additional course. Thus, facilitating the development of Digital literacy of students with hearing impairments has bеcоmе оnе of the kеу challenges fасеd by special (correctional) sсhооls tоday.
Abstract: Teacher leadership cannot be implemented without support from the school administration. This implies the need to identify preconditions that are related to the school administration support for teacher leadership and the implementation of it through learning co-creation with students. The aim of this study was to reveal the attitudes of the school administration towards teacher leadership in the context of learning co-creation with students. An Exploratory Factor Analysis with Varimax rotation was performed to determine whether the statements of the research tool based on the results could be assigned to the scales they contain according to the primary logic of the school administration leadership and learning co-creation model. The research findings manifested the following preconditions for school administration to support the teacher leadership within the learning co-creation between teachers and students: fostering teacher authority, trusting teacher competence, maintenance of mutual respect, maintenance of positive socio-emotional climate, and encouraging teachers to take responsibility students’ learning.
Abstract: Investigating the teaching approaches that teachers adopt in the education process has gained significant importance. Various scales have been developed to determine teachers' teaching approaches. Cultural differences may cause the scales to yield different results. Therefore, adapting the scales to different cultures contributes to the use of such scales by those cultures. Accordingly, the Teaching Approaches Scale developed by Michael Prosser and KeithTrigwell (2006), which was adapted into Turkish by Tezci (2017), was adapted to the Kosovo culture. In the present study, whether the Albanian, Bosnian and Turkish versions of the scale support the same factor structure was investigated using the quantitative research method. Firstly, the Teaching Approaches Scale was translated into Albanian and Bosnian and the opinion of an expert was taken. The scale was applied to 200 teachers working in schools where the teaching languages are Albanian, Bosnian and Turkish. The scale comprised 22 items and 2 factors. The present study was carried out in Kosovo, therefore linguistic equivalence was particularly prioritized. Confirmatory Factor Analysis was utilized to confirm the suitability of the two-factor structure of the scale. Analyzes were carried out separately for each language and acceptable fit indices were determined. The reliability analysis yielded satisfactory results.
Abstract: Important requirements imposed on modern employees are project thinking, team work in order to solve a socially significant problem and the ability to apply principles of self-management. In addition, these supra-professional skills are fundamental in the concept of soft skills. The authors suggest using Smartsheet tools as a digital resource to form these in-demand skills.
The research methodology is based on the technology of collaborative learning, group work methods (comments, talks, providing cards, defending projects). The software tool is the Smartsheet service. The authors have used standard methods of mathematical statistics to process empirical data.
Research results. The authors describe features of organizing collaboration in the Smartsheet environment to form project management skills: determining the minimum required range of tools for mandatory use, including elements of mini-research, understanding the content of the task and options for its development, distribution to teams as a random event, etc. The authors evaluate levels of formation of project management skills and statistically significant differences in the qualitative changes that occurred in the pedagogical system.
Finally, they come to the conclusion that working with Smartsheet tools for exporting data from ready-made spreadsheets, delimiting access rights and allocating resources, tracking comments, adding files, and team introspection provide additional conditions for the formation of high-demanded competencies in the theory and practice of project management.
Abstract: It is of utmost importance for quality and contemporary education process to study the significant determinants of teachers’ competencies for inclusive teaching, such as teachers’ professional development and their personalities. In order to organize suitable and quality teaching and learning process for diverse learners, teachers need to board range of competencies, positive attitudes towards inclusive education, training preparation and professional development regarding their various personalities. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore the relationship between teachers’ competencies for inclusive teaching, professional development and personality traits, and which predictors of inclusive teaching skills are significant. The national representative sample of 1195 Croatian teachers (F = 975; M = 198; Age = 41.96) from first to eight grade were included. The Scales to measure self-perceived teachers’ competencies for individualized instruction in inclusive classrooms and professional development as well as The Ten Item Personality Inventory were used.
The results reflect a positive relationship between teachers’ competencies for inclusive teaching and professional competencies and personality traits, and those with their demographic data such as age, working experience and working position. The hierarchical regression analysis revealed that the greatest predictors for inclusive teaching competencies are professional competencies, while openness to experience and work position have minor significance. The findings have discussed within the frame of their significant implications for enhancing the initial and continuing training and support of teachers as the key strategies for the realization of an inclusive and right-based education system.
Abstract: The outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic in Israel at the middle of March 2020 has disrupted all aspects of life. Schools, colleges and other higher education institutions were closed most of the time. Teaching and learning continued online in an ERT (emergency remote teaching) format. The situation confronted teachers and students with entirely new challenges of uncertainty. The present study focuses on the perspectives of pre-service teachers in Israel regarding their practical experience training during the times of the covid 19 pandemic. The research hypothesis assumed that the complications caused by the pandemic will have a negative impact on how the pre-service teachers assess the quality of their practical training, which would be reflected in difficulties in their integration at work, their sense of efficacy in teaching, their teaching methods and their reluctance to continue teaching. The study examines the correlations between the assessment of their practical training experience and their self-reported self-efficacy, use of various teaching methods, integration at work, and the willingness to remain in the teaching profession. All at the time of the pandemic.
Our main findings indicate that they assess their practical training as good (3.69); have a high sense of professional self-efficacy (4.06); use a variety of teaching methods; and express their desire to continue teaching (3.97). Overall, the findings indicate correlations between the interns’ positive assessment of their practical training and their high self-efficacy, their use of a variety of teaching methods, and their desire to continue teaching.
Abstract: The article examines the problem of creativity development, taking into account students' cognitive styles. We studied theory assumptions for cognitive styles when providing psychological and educational support for the development of a person's creativity, and presented the analysis of parameters of cognitive styles. We presented arguments that a person’s cognitive style has a set of invariable constituents that manifest themselves in perception, processing, and use of information, as well as in variable ways to use the information space. We revealed the content characteristics of the cognitive style. We found that the majority of participants were characterized by field dependence and integrity and proved that parameters of cognitive styles are interrelated with self-regulation and creativity. In case of field independence and differentiation, the biggest changes were observed in the development of modeling, flexibility and curiosity. Prevailing field dependence and integrity had a positive effect on the development of emotional sensitivity (empathy), intuition and a creative attitude towards a profession. Students with different parameters demonstrated differences in the development of creativity components. The research provides empirical evidence for using psychological and educational support to develop students’ creative abilities. The authors highlighted the possibilities of psychological and educational support for creativity development, taking into account students’ cognitive styles.
Abstract: The article provides substantiation for the process of socialization of orphans in an orphanage. The essence of the concept of “socialization in an orphanage” is clarified. Authors consider socialization in an orphanage as the process of development of social competence of its residents that serves as a basis for orphans’ relationship with society through the implementation of an individual strategy of social learning, self-knowledge, and personal self-realization that provides orphanage residents with social knowledge, socially-oriented motives, and social experience. The main block of the experimental work was carried out based on the Pavlodar orphanage in 2020–2021. The criteria and diagnostic methods for the evaluation of social competence development in orphanage residents are identified. A Model for the development of social competence in adolescents in an orphanage including the program and purpose, activity, and reflexive and predictive components is developed and implemented into the pedagogical practice of an orphanage; based on the Model for the development of social competence in adolescents in an orphanage, the “Socialization in an orphanage” program aimed at the socialization of orphanage residents is developed. The effectiveness of the developed Model for the development of social competence in adolescents in an orphanage is proven in the course of the study of specific characteristics of orphans’ socialization in an orphanage. The study results are recommended for practical implementation in orphanages in the process of orphans’ socialization.
Abstract: The objective of this work is to know, based on gender, the level of financial literacy of millennials students in the city of Veracruz; whether they have a savings culture and their behavior regarding retirement savings. For this, the descriptive cross-sectioned method was used, with a sample of 120 millennials students from Veracruz between 17 and 40 years of age. The data was obtained from an electronic survey applied through WhatsApp and Facebook. The instrument used was designed with items taken from surveys by Lusardi and Mitchell (2014), CONSAR+ (2017), Banamex (2014) and Banamex-UNAM (2008). Subsequently, the Cronbach's alpha coefficient was used to test the reliability of the instrument. The main findings are that this group has basic financial knowledge, however, not enough to handle more complex financial products such as bonds. In terms of gender, it is men who have a higher level of financial literacy, while it is women who have a greater culture of saving and are more aware of the importance of saving for retirement.
15. Jacob Owusu Sarfo, Arturo García-Santillán, Edward Wilson Ansah, Henry Adusei, Josephine Cudjoe Sarfo, Rafael Valdece Sousa Bastos, Philip Soyiri Donyeh, Violetta S. Molchanova, Marina Drushlyak, Olena Semenikhina, Somayeh Zand, Violeta Enea, Sadia Malik, Farzana Ashraf, Najma Iqbal Malik, Hattaphan Wongcharee, Felix O. Egara, Arun Tipandjan, Uzma Azam, Mohammed Salah Hassan, Mai Helmy, Zahir Vally, Reza Najafi
Psychometric Properties of Anxiety Towards Mathematics Scale using Samples from Four Continents
European Journal of Contemporary Education. 2022. 11(2): 504-514.
Abstract: This study aimed to examine the factor structure and psychometric properties of the Anxiety Towards Mathematics Scale across four continents. We adopted and translated the original Spanish version of the 24-item Anxiety Towards Mathematics Scale (ATMS-24; Muñoz, Mato-Vazquez, 2007) to collect 4,338 responses from Egypt, Ghana, India, Iran, Malaysia, Mexico, Nigeria, Pakistan, Romania, Thailand, Ukraine, and United Arab Emirates. Also, we conducted an Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) on the ATMS-24 to examine whether the data fit well across cultures. Furthermore, we modified the full-length ATMS-24 to a short form (11-items: ATMS-11) using the Gradual Response Model (GRM) of Item Response Theory (IRT) and further conducted an analysis of measurement invariance. The EFA conducted indicated that the ATMS-24 fit the data well across cultures. The new ATMS-11 version has adequate configural, metric, and scalar invariance in seven countries and the overall sample. The ATMS-11 offers a valid, reliable, and parsimonious means to assess mathematics Anxiety (MA) among students from varied cultures. The factor structure and psychometric properties of ATMS-11 support its use for MA assessment in both male and female students across locations in Africa, Asia, Europe, and South America.
Abstract: Adolescents can successfully apply social skills obtained during physical education classes in other spheres of life. In this respect, social skills training problems of adolescents attending physical education classes are widely investigated. However, there is not enough scientific research on this subject. It is purposive to continue studies in order to evaluate applicability and effectiveness of social skills training programmes.
The goal to reveal the impact of the social skills training programme on adolescents attending physical education classes is formed in this work. The duration of the situational social skills training programme is 18 weeks. 48 14-15-year-old adolescents that attended physical education classes participated in the training experiment. To evaluate social skills before and after the educational experiment, questionnaires of situational social skills and basic social skills were used. The social skills development programme was applied for the experimental group and no impact was applied for the control group. The results of the training experiment revealed the social skills training programme applied during the physical education classes had a statistically reliable impact on the situational and basic social skills in the adolescents from the experimental group.
Abstract: The current epidemiological situation and the format of distance interaction determine the importance of including digital technologies to form intercultural competence. The problems of obtaining the practice of oral foreign language communication, studying the norms of net etiquette, the rules of ethics in multilingual communication, the mechanisms of word formation are actual. The purpose of the research is to identify the didactic possibilities of mobile applications and purposeful work with m-learning technologies to form intercultural competence of students. The methodology is based on the analysis of scientific literature on the issues of m-learning. The provisions of the communicative-activity approach are taken into account when integrating mobile applications into the subject-subject scheme of intercultural communication. Empirical methods were used (surveys, analysis of the results of working with mobile applications and MS Teams). The effectiveness of the proposed approach was confirmed by a pedagogical experiment, during which educational activities with mobile applications were organized within the framework of a specially designed module. Research results. The authors describe the possibilities of mobile applications for involving students in active group interaction on the project, professional self-presentation and intercultural communication. In conclusion the conditions under which the integration of mobile applications into the educational process will be most effective are summarized: the targeted nature of work with m-learning technologies; collaboration of teachers of various disciplines; conscious participation of students at all stages of choosing and using a mobile application.
Abstract: Assessment in physical education lessons remains a relevant issue both among practitioners and in scientific discourse. There is also no consensus in Lithuania on the assessment of students in physical education lessons. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate Lithuanian students’, their parents’, teachers’ and school administrators’ opinions on the assessment in physical education. A total of 4073 participants (1497 students of 9-10th grades, 1498 parents, 317 physical education teachers, 443 teachers of other teaching subjects, and 318 school administrators) from different schools in Lithuania participated in a questionnaire survey. It was found that from the perspective of the study participants, effort and progress should be assessed most in physical education, then physical fitness, knowledge, and motor skills. The most important criteria for cumulative assessment of students in physical education lessons should be students’ progress and achievements, activity in classes and attendance, with knowledge being considered the least important criterion. The study results highlighted the importance of encouraging teachers to more actively communicate learning goals as well as involve students into the evaluation processes.
Abstract: The current study examines ways of engineering students’ development of motivation and independent learning skills which are considered to be the most influential factors for effective language learning in the groups of young adults. As the discipline “Foreign language” is not a major subject in most technical universities in Russia, the number of academic hours allocated for it is limited, moreover, engineering students show low motivation to practice a second language outside the classroom. Besides, as teaching practice shows the first-year students’ independent learning skills are not yet developed enough. Therefore, the authors aimed to find ways to enhance their students’ motivation to master English and teach them how to manage their extracurricular time more effectively. A two-stage survey was conducted in the 2020-2021 academic year in experimental and control groups of the first-year students at Saint Petersburg Mining University for which special questionnaires were designed. The analysis of the participants’ responses allowed selecting the most efficient language learning tools and their effectiveness was assessed at the end of the academic year. The authors also determined the relation between the selected various teaching tools and non-technical competences mastering. The authors managed to define how the selected teaching tools can be beneficial for developing each of these core competences, viz. critical thinking, project work, team-building, leadership, communication, cross-cultural interaction and self-development.
Abstract: This study aimed to assess the cognitive engagement and interest of third-year medical students by offering them an educational activity in the designing of a serious game.
Methods: four successive groups of twelve students each (a total of 48 students) in the third year of medical training participated in an activity of designing serious games. This study was carried out during a summer internship in the cardiology department of Habib Thameur Hospital. The course of the designing of serious games with students spread over 4 weeks with 10 hours face-to-face and 10 hours of remote work.
Results: a total of 48 students were enrolled. Of these 48 students, 36 were female. The means and standard deviations of the cognitive engagement scale experienced by the students were high. The means and standard deviations of the interest scale experienced by the students were high. There are significant and positive relationships between sustained and maintained situational interest and the different cognitive engagement scales. The correlation between individual interest and peer collaboration, cognitive problem solving, interactions with instructors, and learning management was significant.
Conclusion: using serious game development-based learning as a learning method for medical students’ suggests a promising approach for developing cognitive engagement and interest.
Abstract: Globalization in the field of science and education has intensified the so-called student migration. However, during the COVID-19 pandemic, universities have been forced to quickly reorganize their educational activities with the help of distance learning technologies. The article is aimed at identifying the COVID-19 impact on student migration and the development of distance learning.
The article presents a brief review of the current state of student migration all over the world and identifies the approaches to the concept of student migration, as well as its advantages and disadvantages for all participants in the educational process. In the course of the study authors used several general scientific and special methods: comparison and generalization, applied in the process of analysing researchers’ views, the abstract logical method applied in the process of formulating research conclusions. The main method of the research was expert survey. Based on an expert survey, the authors identify the key aspects of the COVID-19 impact on student migration, the conditions necessary for improving the quality of distance learning services for foreign students at the university level, and the ways of enhancing the cognitive activity of foreign students during distance learning in the context of the pandemic. In the conclusions, the author determines that COVID-19 leads to serious structural changes in higher education institutions due to the development and spread of new learning technologies, as well as changes in world educational migration.
Abstract: This paper examines the efforts to organize legal education in the Russian Empire undertaken by the Russian government in the 18th century. Primary use was made of research findings from scholars researching the system of public education in Russia in the period between the 18th and 19th centuries, as well as the statutory framework relating to the topic.
By and large, the Russian Empire did not yet have in place a robust system of public education in the 18th century. This, in turn, reflected on the pace of the development of legal education in the country. At the same time, the idea of developing this area was quite a popular one, including at the governmental level. However, legal education was only in its infancy throughout the 18th century. One of the reasons behind this, arguably, was that at that time there was no social need in the Russian Empire for training future lawyers. The provision of legal education sought to fulfill a purely utilitarian goal – to train future functionaries capable of ensuring the proper operation of government institutions. To this end, legal training was first organized by the government at collegiums, where young people could combine training with public service (in entry-level positions). Afterwards, jurisprudence classes were introduced in cadet corps. With the opening of Moscow University, the nation’s first law department was also established. The teaching of legal disciplines in the Russian Empire left much to be desired for a long time, with the primary reasons including severe shortages of instructors and textbooks and instruction often being conducted in a foreign language.
Abstract: This paper examines the interaction between Kharkov Imperial University and Don Cossackdom in the period 1800–1810. The conclusion drawn herein based on an analysis of relevant works by prerevolutionary authors on the history of Kharkov Imperial University and those on the history of education in the Don region is that Kharkov Imperial University and the Don Host formed a single scientific-educational space together and that this university is where the bulk of the Don Cossack intelligentsia formed. It is to be noted, however, that after 1917 there were some zoning changes in both education and geography in Eastern Europe at large, with the once-existing single scientific-educational space gradually ceasing to be of interest to researchers.
The paper shows that the development of cultural ties between the Don Host and Kharkov began no later than the mid-18th century, and that was something done on the initiative of local figures. The government creating the Kharkov Educational District and making Kharkov University its center only formalized the already existing ties. The Don Host and Kharkov University worked together in the following three major areas: (1) Kharkov University providing support to the Don region’s educational institutions (above all, substantial financial and organizational assistance for the only gymnasium in Novocherkassk); (2) educating Don students (27 individuals over the course of 11 years, with 5 of those going on to play a major role in the history of Don science and culture); (3) publishing the first-ever research on Don Cossackdom (which would turn out to be a failure). Note that attending Kharkov University both facilitated the integration of young Cossacks into the common imperial cultural space and, on the contrary, helped cultivate in them a distinct Cossack identity. It is by individuals who graduated from Kharkov University during that period that the classic work ‘A Historical Description of the Land of the Don Host’ would be created, and it is Kharkov University that would publish works by Don students imbued with local color.
Abstract: This paper draws upon data from the Russian Imperial Census of 1897 to explore the literacy and education levels of residents of Ukrainian governorates within the Russian Empire at the end of the 19th century.
An analysis of statistical data from a number of relevant sources revealed discrepancies both in the percentage of literate people overall and among males and females in the Russian Empire.
It is impossible at this time to obtain conclusive data about the number of literate people both in the Russian Empire as a whole and in Ukrainian governorates within it in particular, as this information was gathered by different agencies and was not of a centralized nature. The data from the Russian Imperial Census of 1897 appear to be the most reliable in terms of objectivity, which may be associated with the fact that, in systematizing these data, use was made of a variety of data collection techniques, including census schedule, pilot census, linguistic survey, and survey by questionnaire.
The work proposes a conceptualization of the literate as citizens with at least elementary reading and writing skills, the literacy level as the share of literate citizens in a region, and the literacy index as the ratio of literate citizens to a region’s total population.
An analysis was conducted of the characteristics of the education policies pursued by the Russian government at the time, and its results were summarized. An insight was gained into the overall influence of those policies on the literacy and education levels of residents of Ukrainian governorates within the Empire.
Literacy and education levels in Ukrainian governorates within the Russian Empire were analyzed through the lens of a number of factors (criteria), including regional characteristics, gender, age, estate, ethnicity, and religious affiliation.
Abstract: This paper explores the development of the regulatory framework of the Caucasus Educational District in the second half of the 19th century. Consideration is given to instruments on both general issues and specific issues dealing with secondary, lower, primary, and private education.
The study’s source base relies on a whole raft of legislative materials, including regulations, instructions, statutes, circular proposals, and rules. These documents were published both as part of collections of documents on issues related to the system of public education in the Caucasus Educational District and separately. The study’s methodology is grounded in the principle of systematicity and the chronological principle. The use of the former helped to systematize legislative and regulatory instruments into two major groups – those on general issues and those dealing with secondary, lower, primary, and private education specifically. The use of the latter helped to examine the development of the District’s regulatory framework in its chronological sequence.
The author’s conclusion is that in the second half of the 19th century the Caucasus Educational District witnessed the process of unification of the regulatory framework regulating the educational process in the region. In the period from the late 1860s to the early 1870s, the government implemented in the Caucasus a set of educational standards used in the European part of the Russian Empire. These standards, which covered secondary, lower, primary, and private education, played an overall large role in enhancing the quality of education offered by educational institutions in the region.
Abstract: This set of articles explores the development of the system of education in Penza Governorate, a region in the Russian Empire, in the second half of the 19th and early 20th centuries (through to 1917).
The present paper is the second part of the series. It examines the timeframe from 1855 to 1894, i.e. the periods of the reigns of Alexander II (“Alexander the Liberator”) and Alexander III (“Alexander the Peacemaker”). The paper relies on the relevant statistical data to analyze the effect of the reforms of Alexander II and the counter-reforms of Alexander III on the development of the system of education in Penza Governorate.
The primary source used in this study was the so-called “memorandum books”. Use was also made of certain relevant reference materials (e.g., the so-called “address calendars”) and regulatory documents.
In terms of methodology, use was made of а set of traditional (the historical-comparative, historical-typological, historical-systematic, and historical-genetic methods) and nontraditional historical research methods (the historical-statistical method) and a set of general research methods (analysis of the literature and sources, synthetic analysis, systems analysis, and mathematical methods).
A statistical analysis conducted as part of this study revealed that the period under examination witnessed a sharp increase in the numbers of secondary (nearly 300 % in the 1870s and around 170 % in the 1880s) and primary educational institutions (from 109 (in 1866) to 542 (by 1894)) in the region. Arguably, the explosive growth in the numbers of educational institutions and students in the region was associated with the liberal education reforms of Alexander II. In the 1880s, i.e. the period of the so-called “counter-reforms”, the region witnessed an increase not in the number of humanities-focused secondary educational institutions (gymnasiums and progymnasiums) but in the number of technical educational institutions (real, industrial, and tradesman’s schools), which was in keeping with the nation’s industrial boom and nascent technological revolution.
Abstract: The opening of “new method” schools in Turkestan and Western Siberia at the end of the XIX – beginning of the XX centuries and their features are a topical issue not only for Central Asia, but also for the Eurasian space. It is important to assess how much education has changed over the period under consideration, the results of reforming this area and the possibilities of applying the “new method” schools in the modern field of education.
In the course of the research, the concepts of “new method” school and “confessional school-madrasa” are identified, and the manifestations of the concept of the content of education at the beginning of the XX century are described. The analysis of the work of the confessional school-madrasa of the beginning of the XX century on the basis of accurate data revealed that the methods of teaching here were too outdated. The main proof of this is the remoteness from the secular education system. In the world educational space at the beginning of the XX century, a secular education system was radically established. The demand of the time gave rise to the emergence of “new method” schools. According to the results of the study, it was proved that the schools of the “new method” are a synthesis of the Western model of teaching and Eastern features. After the October Revolution in Russia in 1917, education in Turkestan and Western Siberia completely switched to a secular form of education. That is why the “new method” schools, which began to appear in large numbers at the beginning of the XX century, successfully served as a transition.
Abstract: This work explores the system of public education in Dagestan Oblast in the period 1860–1917. The present part of the work examines the period up to 1884, i.e. from the year Dagestan Oblast was founded to the year the annual reports of the Trustee of the Caucasus Educational District began to be published.
The key sources used in putting this work together are the 1879 Memorandum Book for the Caucasus Educational District and the 1884 Report from the Trustee of the Caucasus Educational District. These sources offer valuable statistical insight into the state of education in Dagestan Oblast in the period up to 1884. Use was also made of certain relevant reference materials.
The process of building a network of educational institutions in Dagestan Oblast continued up until the mid-1880s. As at 1884, the region’s total student body was 773 students.
Access to secondary education was available in the region’s administrative center, Temir-Khan-Shura. Lower education was available only in Derbent. In addition, the region had in place an underdeveloped network of primary schools. As a consequence, there was an imbalance in the distribution of students across the education system, with half of the region’s student body attending secondary educational institutions, and the other half going to lower and primary schools.
The ethnic composition of the region’s student body was as follows: ethnic Russians – 56.7 %, mountaineers – 15.3 %, Jews – 9.7 %, and Armenians – 9 %. The rest of the ethnicities represented an insignificant share of the student body.
Abstract: This work explores the system of public education in Elisabethpol Governorate in the period 1868–1917. The present part of the work examines the timeframe from 1900 to 1914.
A key source used in putting this work together is a set of reports from the Trustee of the Caucasus Educational District for the period 1884–1914. These reports provide a valuable statistical insight into the development of the system of public education in Elisabethpol Governorate in the prerevolutionary period. They contain data such as the number of educational institutions in the region, their library holdings, and the size and ethnic composition of the student body at them.
The authors’ conclusion is that Elisabethpol Governorate witnessed significant development in its primary education sector in 1900–1914. In that period, the number of primary schools in the region rose from 91 to 325. This increase was accompanied by a threefold rise in the number of students at them. The growing number of schools intensified the need for teachers. To this end, in 1914 the region’s capital became home to a teacher’s seminary. Concurrently, transformations also took place in the region’s system of lower education, which was reorganized from four- to six-grade. In addition, on the eve of World War I, two of the governorate’s regions each became home to a higher primary school, which would contribute to better access to lower education in the region.
The number of secondary educational institutions in Elisabethpol Governorate did not increase in the period under examination. Nevertheless, the growing number of students in the region indicated the need for the government to open at least one more male gymnasium in Elisabethpol in the foreseeable future.
As for the ethnic composition of the region’s student body, there were declines in each of the dominant groups (Armenians, Tatars, and ethnic Russians). In the period under examination, the number of Armenians at the region’s educational institutions dropped from 66 % to 64 %, Tatars – from 19 % to 17 %, and ethnic Russians – from 7 % to 6 %. At the same time, there was a sharp increase in the number of students from other ethnic groups, including Jews and Europeans.